ပသီလူမ်ဳိးဆုိသည္မွာ –

ပသီလူမ်ဳိးဆုိသည္မွာ  –

 

ဘုိးေတာ္မင္းတရားၾကီးထုတ္ၿပန္ေသာ အမိန္႔ေတာ္ၿပန္တမ္းတြင္ ” အာဗစ္ရွာဟုိ သႏဒီ တၿပည္ င ေရႊငူ ၊ ငေရႊေအး တုိ႕ကနဳိင္ငံေတာ္တြင္း အရပ္ရပ္ၿမဳိ႔ရြာမ်ားရွိ ပသီကုလားတုိ႕ကုိ ၎တုိ႔ဘာ သာကြ်မ္း က်င္သည္႕ အတုိင္း အာဗစ္ရွာဟုိသိႏၵီတၿပည္႔တုိ႔ၿပသရာ နာခံေစ။ ရခုိင္ၿပည္ ေလးၿမဳိ႔ေက်းရြာမ်ားမွာ ရွိေနၾကသည္႔ ပသီ ကုလား တုိ႔တြင္ ဘာသာတရားစကားမ်ားကုိ အရပ္ရပ္ ပသီကုလား နည္းတူ အာဗစ္ရွာဟုိသိႏၵီ တၿပည္႔မ်ားက စစ္ေၾကာစီရင္ေစ။”

(နာခံေတာ္ ဘယေက်ာ္ထင္ၿပန္သည္။)

          နဳိင္ငံေတာ္ ဖြဲ႔စည္းသည္႔ ရန္ၿဖဳိခြင္းအေၿမာက္တပ္အၿခားအေၿမွာက္တပ္မ်ား၊ အေၿမွာကတပ္ဆုိ သည္႔ တပ္ၾကီးမ်ားတြင္တပ္မွဴးတပ္သားမ်ားမွာ ကင္းတားကုလားပ်ဳိ ေၿမဒူးပသီမ်ားပါ၀င္သည္။

               (ဦးေမာင္ေမာင္တင္၏ ၿမန္မာလက္ထက္ေတာ္စာတမ္းမ်ား)

          ၿမန္မာသကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၁၈ – ခုႏွစ္တေပါင္းလဆန္ သုံးရက္ ေန႔တြင္ ရတနာပုံသစ္ တည္ ေရးၿမဳိ႕ ကြက္သစ္ ရွင္း ရာတြင္ ဗုိလ္မင္းထင္ရာဇ ဦးစီးသည္႔ ပသီကုလား ေလးရာေက်ာ္ ပါ၀င္ ခဲ႔သည္။

“ပသီ´´-ျမန္မာမြတ္စလင္မ္လူမ်ိဳး

Par-thi, Far-si

 

ပသီလူမ်ိဳးတို႔မွ လြန္ခဲ့ေသာ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း တစ္ေထာင္ေက်ာ္ကာလကပင္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ တည္ ရွိခဲ့ ေၾကာင္း တ႐ုတ္ႏိုင္ငံ မန္ခ်ဳးမွတ္တမ္းႏွင့္ မွန္နန္းရာဇ၀င္ႏွင့္ ကုန္းေဘာင္ ဆက္မဟာ ရာဇ၀င္မ်ား တြင္ ပါရွိသည္။ေအဒီ ၁၂၂၁-ခု၊ အေနာ္ရထာမင္းတည္ေထာင္ခဲ့သည့္ ပုဂံေနျပည္ေတာ္ ယိမ္းယိုင္ လာ၍ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ေရပိုက္နက္လံုၿခံဳေရးႏွငင့္ ကာကြယ္ေရးတာ၀န္ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနရသည့္ ပသီ တပ္ မွ၊ မိမိတို႔ႀက မၼာ မိမိတို႔ကိုယ္တိုင္ ဖန္တီးမည့္ အေျခအေနသို႔ေရာက္ရွိလာကာ ပုသိမ္ဟု ေခၚ မည့္ ေဒသ တြင္ ပသီၿမိဳ႕ျပႏိုင္ငံ ပသီမင္းဆက္(၃)ဆက္၊(၁၂)ႏွစ္တိုင္တို္င္ တည္ေထာင္ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ ခဲ့သည္။ ကရင္ တို႔ မွ ၀ိန္႔ပသီ၊ ေ၀့ပသီဟူ၍လည္းေကာင္း၊ မြန္တို႔မွ ဒံုးပသီ၊ဥဳင္းပသီ ဟူ၍လည္း ေကာင္း ေခၚ ဆိုၾကသည္။
၀ိဋဋဴပႏွင့္ သာကီ၀င္တို႔ မသင့္မတင့္ျဖစ္၍ စစ္ခင္းၾကသည္တြင္ သာကီ၀င္ ဓဇရာဇာမင္း၊ မဇၥ်ိမ ေဒသမွ စြန္႔ခြာလာသကဲ့သို႔တပ္မွဴး၊ ဗိုလ္မွဴး၊ ၀န္ႀကီး၊ ပညာရွိတပ္သား မက်န္ နန္းမ်ိဳးႏြယ္ (၃၇၀၀) တို႔ အစု ခြဲကာ အင္း၀ဘုရင္ စေနမင္းထံ သစၥာႏွံကာခိုလႈံခဲ့ၾကသည္။ေတာင္ငူ၊ ရမည္းသင္း၊ ယင္းေတာ္၊ မိတၳီလာ၊ စည္သာ၊ ဒီပဲယင္း၊ ေညာင္းရမ္း၊ ပင္းတလဲ၊ တဘက္ဆြဲ၊ ေဘာဓိ၊ စည္ပုတၱရာ၊ ေျမထူး တြင္ အစုခြဲေနထိုင္သူတို႔မွာ မင္းမႈထမ္းရင္း အေျမွာက္တပ္၊ ေသနတ္တပ္၊ ျမင္းတပ္၊ ကိုယ္ရံေတာ္တပ္၊ ကင္းတားကုလားပ်ိဳတပ္၊ စာဆိုမ်ား ကုန္သည္ေတာ္မ်ားအျဖစ္ အမႈေတာ္ထမ္းရြက္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။
ref : ဆရာမာဃ-ပုသိမ္ရာဇ၀င္၊ စာမ်က္ႏွာ-၁၃၇

 

Pathi and Panthays

Persian Muslims traveled over land, in search of China, and arrived northern Burma at Yunnan (China) border. Their colonies were recorded in Chronicles of China in 860 AD.[42][43] Myanmar Muslims were sometimes called Pathi, and Chinese Muslims are called Panthay.[44] It is widely believed that those names derived from Parsi (Persian). Bago Pegu), Dala, Thanlyin (Syriam), Taninthayi (Tenasserim), Mottama (Martaban), Myeik (Mergui) and Pathein (Bassein) were full of Burmese Muslim settlers and they outnumbered the local Burmese by many times. In one record, Pathein was said to be populated with Pathis. Perhaps Pathein comes from Pathi.[45] And coincidentally, Pathein is still famous for Pathein halawa, a traditional <a title="Cuisine of
Myanmar” href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuisine_of_Myanmar”>Myanmar Muslim food inherited from northern Indian Muslims. In Kawzar 583 (13th Century), Bassein or Pathein was known as Pathi town under the three Indian Muslim Kings.[46][47][48] Arab merchants arrived Martaban, Margue. Arab settlement in the present Meik’s mid-western quarters.[49]

Panthay

During Bagan King, Narathihapate, 1255–1286, in the first Sino Burman war, Kublaikhan’s Muslim Tatars attacked and occupied up to Nga Saung Chan. Mongols under Kublai Khan invaded the Pagan Kingdom. During this first Sino Burman war in 1283, Colonel Nasruddin’s Turks occupied up to Bamaw. (Kaungsin)[24] (Tarek) <a title="Turkish
people” href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_people”>Turk were called, Mongol, Manchuria, Mahamaden or Panthays.[50] The Chinese General Mah Tu Tu managed the building of a mosque donated by the Yunnanese Muslim king, Sultan Sulaiman, in nineteen century in central Mandalay. The mosque is still maintained in a very good condition. Most of the Myanmar Chinese Muslims are staying around the mosque and it is well known as Panthay Mosque. That area is called Panthay Dan (Panthay Quarters).[51]

 

Burmese Muslims are also called Pathi in Myanmar. See Islam in Myanmar.

List of prominent Burmese Muslims

  • Saya Gyi U Nu

Saya Gyi U Nu (Great Teacher or Guru) Mayor of Yammar Watti, Shwe Taung Thargathu also known as Mohamed Kassim was a very famous Burmese Muslim writer during King Bodawpaya. He wrote or translated many Islamic religious books. He used Pali and other words and terms from the Burmese religious literature to Burmanise the Islamic literature. Combined with his flowery, poetic Burmese writing, his books are regarded as Myanmar Muslims’ classics.[7] Bodawpaya appointed him as the head of the mission to India to collect and bring back books and Scriptures in Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu and Persian.[8] Saya Gyi U Nu was appointed as the Mayor of Yammar Wati with the Shwe Taung Tharga title.[9] But recent military rulers prohibited the Muslims from using these Pali words and terms in Islamic religious books.

  • U Razak

U Razak (20 January 1898 – 19 July 1947; Arabic: Abdul Razak) was a Burmese politician who was a respected educationalist. He was a minister at Aung Sann’s pre-independence interim government and was assassinated, along with Aung San and other members, on 19 July 1947. July 19 is celebrated in Myanmar today as Martyrs’ Day. U Razak was Minister of Education and National Planning, and was chairman of the Burma Muslim Congress.[10]

  • Wazir U Kan Gyi“(1870-1960)[11]

Educated in Bombay, Kanji made Burma his home and adopted the Burmese name Kan Gyi. He was given the title of Wazir by his Highness the Aga Khan. He was a wealthy, influential business man who devoted himself to social causes and philanthropy.

  • Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw

Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw from Navy was a very prominent writer and pioneer NLD leader died in SPDC jail. He was buried at Kandaw Gale Sunni cemetery.[12]

  • U Shwe Yoe aka U Ba Ga Lay

U Shwe Yoe was a Burmese Muslim named, U Ba Ga Lay. He was the pioneer famous Cartoonist, Actor, Comedian and dancer

U Shwe Yoe dance was U Ba Ga Lay’s jolly joker dance sequence in, “Ah Ba Yae” (Oh Ah Ba. Ah Ba means old man or father in Burmese) which was one of the pioneer films of Myanmar movie history about rural life. The dance is full of fun and joy and it appealed so much to the Myanmar audience and is adopted as a dance for all festive occasions..[13][14]

  • Colonel Ba Shin

Colonel Ba Shin a noted historian was later a member of The Myanmar History Commission,[15] UTC and Islamic Religious Affairs Council.

  • Kyar (Tiger) Ba Nyein and family members

Kyar Ba Nyein was also a very prominent Myanmar Muslim. He was known to be a great boxer, and had even represented Burma in the Olympics. He had successfully trained a lot of boxers. And he had rejuvenated the Myanmar traditional boxing. He was a famous writer also. His son U Win Nyein is also a prominent Journalist. U Chit Nyo, brother of Kyar Ba Nyein is also a famous writer. Myo Myint Nyein was the editor of Payphuhlwar, a former monthly magazine in Burma. Awarded the International Press Freedom Award in absentia by the Toronto-based Canadian Journalists for Free Expression (CJFE). He is the brother of Win Nyein.

  • U Kyaw Nyun

U Kyaw Nyun with Thakin Tin in 1961 was a Mon Muslim who served in successive Governments starting from General Aung San’s Government as Secretary of Ministry of Defence,Secretary of Finance & Revenue,Secretary of National Planning,Chairman of Union of Burma Bank,Ambassador etc.,

  • Karim Ghani

Karim Ghani was born in Sothugudi, Ilayangudi, a politician in South-East Asia of Indian origin Karim Ghani. Before the Second World War Karim Ghani was a parliamentary secretary in Burma under Dr. Ba Maw.

  • U Raschid

U Raschid, an Indian Myanmar Muslim, was active in Thakin Movement (The Burmese National movement against ruling British). He was the secretary general of Rangoon University Students’ Association in 1931 together with prominent Myanmar political leaders: Aung San, U Nu, U Kyaw Nyein, U Ba Swe etc. U Raschid was the first president of the All Burma Students’ Union. In 1952 U Nu appointed him as Minister for Housing and Labour, later in 1954, Minister for Trade and Development, in 1956, Minister of Mines, in 1960 Minister of Commerce and Industry. In 1958 he was the Vice President of the Trade Union Council of Burma. U Nu requested him to change his name to U Yanshin to make him more acceptable to other Buddhist but he declined. General Ne Win arrested him in 1962, during the coup.[16]

  • U Khin Maung Latt

U Khin Maung Latt was one of the Myanmar-Muslim Cabinet Ministers in U Nu’s Government held the Social Services and Health portfolio. He was the secretary of U Razak before his (U Razak) assassination. He had been active in the Students’ organizations of Yangon University and had taken part in the very famous students’ strike of 1936. He successfully organized the Muslims in whole Burma to stand united under the AFPFL flag during the struggle for the independence.He worked together assisting U Razak. When AFPFL split in to two, U Khin Maung Lat was with the Stable Fiction.U Raschid remained with U Nu.

  • Kan Chun

Kan Chun @ Mohamad Omar is a Satirist, Journalist, Novelist, Cartoonist and Artist (Painter) from Mandalay, Burma. Born in Mandalay on 4th. April 1946 from the parents U Ba Htay and Daw Aye Shwin. died at 3.30 PM 20.08.2009 in Mandalay.

  • Boxer Win Maung

He was well known as Boxer Win Maung, one of the Myanmar Top Boxer who represent Burma at XX Munich Olympic, Germany 1972. He is a Myanmar Muslim. He was sent to more than 13 countries including many South East Asia (SEAS) Games, Asia Games and also Olympic. He is one of the 10 athletes who reached the Olympic games along Burmese Sports History.

*Daw Win Mya Mya

NLD Mandalay Division Organizing Committee member, Daw Win Mya Mya is a Panthay Muslim. She was assaulted by the SPDC affiliated thugs and arrested at Depayin together with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other NLD members. She is a brave and active NLD leader. [2]

  • Saya Chair also had a very good relation with the Military Government and was appointed the Chairman of the Election Commission.[17]
  • Hajima Pyinmanar (Sein) Daw Pu. Hajima Daw Pu was also a famous Myanmar-Muslim philanthropist. Because of her donation of a new Kidney Hospital and good social relations with General Ne Win, Military Government even awarded her with a medal for her outstanding social deeds.[18]
  • Sultan Mahmood (Health Minister)

Wealthy and influential Myanmar Muslim,Sultan Mahmood was the political secretary in U Nu’s government and later was appointed as Health Minister.[19]

  • Other MPs (Member of Parliament)

Other Rohingya Myanmar Muslims in U Nu’s Parliament as parliamentary secretaries were Mr Sultan Ahmed and Mr Abdul Gaffar. Mr Abdul Bashar, Mrs. Zohora Begum @ Daw Aye Nyunt,Mr Abdul Khair, Mr Abdus Sobhan, Mr Abdul Bashar, Mr Rashid Ahmed, Mr Nasiruddin (U Pho Khine), were members of Parliament in different terms in U Nu’s Government.[19]

  • Colonel (Tat Hmu Gyi) U Pho Kar

He started to enlist in Mindon’s Cannon regiment since young. During King Thibaw’s reign, he was the Captain on the Sekyar Ngwezin Thulu ship which went to Bamaw to attack the Burmese Rebels and the Chinese invaders.

During the third Anglo-Burmese war, he was at Min Hla Fort leading 200 Cannoners. U Pho Kar was together there with his uncles Captain Bo Kyae, Captain Bo U Maung, Sergeant (Thwe Thaut) U Kyar Yone. At the battle, one Captain and 50 soldiers killed. Burmese had to retreat and U Pho Kar retreated with the gunshot wound on the abdomen. After the war he settled in Maymyo. Parliamentarian Haji U Than Nyunt was his son. U Pho Kar died on 10th. May 1956 at the age of 95.[20]

  • Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors. There were also Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors like U Pe Khin and U Hla Maung.
  • Ambassador U Pe Khin was the most important negotiator and architect of the historical Panglon treaty. Even General Aung San was disappointed, given up and decided to take the flight back to Rangoon that evening. U Pe Khin persuaded General Aung San to stay for one night and to allow him to negotiate with the Ethnic Minority leaders. U Pe Khin successfully negotiated with those Ethnic leaders to get an agreement for this most important treaty in Burma, which was the foundation for the Union of Burma and its Independence.[21]
  • Thein Phae Lay was a popular comedian and famous singer. Khin Maung Htoo and Chit Kaung are also famous Burmese Muslim singers.
  • Psychiatrist Prof Dr U Ne Win, Medical Superintendent (Head of Hospital) Yangon Psychiatric Hospital. *
  • Faridah Meer, the Head of the Department in Surgery in the National University Malaysia (UKM)(General Hospital Kuala Lumpur).
  • Captain U Khin Maung Latt or Haji Hassan Latt

Captain U Khin Maung Latt or Haji Hassan Latt was also one of the pioneer pilots after independence. Later he became the General Manager of Burma Airways and was the personal pilot of General Ne Win.

  • U Kyaw Kyaw

U Kyaw Kyaw was also one of the very few Myanmar-Muslims promoted to the high position in the Military Government. He was the Managing Director of the Myanmar Economic Bank. He was born on 15 October 1937 in Ye Nan Chaung, and died on 2 April 2003, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A graduate of Rangoon University, later he joined the State Commercial Bank of Burma as a junior officer. He was trained in Westminster Bank of England in early sixties. He is well respected among his friends and banking society for his vision, discipline, and hard work. During his tenure as Managing Director, he initiated computerization of Banking System in Burma. His concern is always been the dual exchange rate of Burmese currency, and inconsistent monetary policy of Military Government. He also tried to start Myanmar Stock and Exchange in cooperation with a Japanese Bank.

  • Myanmar Muslim activists

Some Myanmar Muslim activists such as Pathi Ko Lay and Dr Kyaw Nyein were also promoters of total assimilation of Burmese Muslims in to Burmese. Especially Dr Kyaw Nyein had a very good relation with the very powerful and famous Mandalay Young Buddhist Monks and to some extent successful in countering the agent provocateurs from inciting the anti Muslim sentiments. Because of his request, real monks influential in Mandalay searched and confiscated and destroyed nearly hundred thousand anti-Muslim pamphlets allegedly distributed the Myanmar Military secret agents. Although reported to the authorities, no one was arrested for that crime in a country where many people were arrested, tortured and jailed for printing or photocopying or distributing any anti-government papers or even for distribution of Human right Declaration from UN office. Lu Du Daw Amar, highly respected journalist wrote in one of the monthly magazine recently about Myanmar Muslims from Mandalay. She praised them for their understanding and respect of the Burmese Culture. While trying to stress the deterioration of religious knowledge among Myanmar Buddhist youths, she pointed out that some of them even did not know how to talk with the monks. She mentioned the skills and politeness of Myanmar Muslims in dealing and talking with the Buddhist monks.

  • U Shaw Phi

U Shaw Phi, Myanmar Muslim rich man, contractor and investor, was also very famous and well connected person among the local and central Military leaders. He was arrested few times because of his extraordinary efficiency and excellent contacts. Once, old and damaged vehicles, which were beyond repairable condition, from the army and State Transport Department were bought from the government. U Shaw Phi ‘shamed’ the Military government by the speedy successful repair within one month. His refurbished buses and trucks hit the roads and he was ‘invited’ into the jail for questioning for few months for his efficiency to repair the damaged vehicles so quickly. He was arrested once because of that kind of efficiency, for the crime of finishing his own house in front of the prolonged project of building the new parliament building. Because he built his house with three shifts of workers day and night, General Ne Win became jealous and ordered to arrest him to inquire how he managed to get the required raw material for the construction. And he was arrested few times without any trial when the number twos in the governments or any other high ranking officials were required to remove from their positions. They were unofficially alleged to have connection with that wealthy man and were said to be not fit to hold high posts. But strangely, the probes or investigations always had to stop before other VIPs were implicated. Obviously, the almost bankrupt authorities needed U Shaw Phi’s skills and wealth.

  • Pali Professor, RASU, Ahmad Kasim
  • MASU, English Professor Ali.
  • Senior Research Officer, History, Dr Daw Yi Yi
  • Associate Professor, History, MASU U Maung Maung Lay
  • RASU Chemistry Professor U Aung Khin @ Md Ali
  • Professor U Ko Lay, Maths, MASU.
  • (Sugar) U Ba Sein. Pilot factory and Nylon Factory.
  • EC Madar Umbrella Factory and Soap Factory.
  • IS Vanya Mananger Director U Thayarwadi Mg Mg agency, co-founder of Muslim Free Hospital, Muslim Central Funds Trust and other Charitable organizations.
  • U Shwe Thar Aung. Chairman Arakanese Muslim association.
  • Major (Dr) Htun Nyo. ENT Surgeon. Mingladon, Maymyo, UKM (Malaysia), Saudi Arabia.
  • Dr U Hla Khaine. Ph.D. Anatomy UK. Professor, Head of Department. UKM. UIA. (Malaysia)
  • Prof. Dr U Khant @ Habib Khan,Psychologist.UM, UIA. (Malaysia) died at 2.00 AM, on August 2, 2007 in Yangon, Myanmar.
  • Ye Soe was one of the famous Myanmar Muslim novelists. He wrote detective stories based on foreign books but he Burmanized them and was accepted by many youths. He wrote more than hundred books.
  • U Kar, was the Rector of Rangoon Arts and science University in 1962. He was the Education Minister of the 1958 Caretaker Government.
  • U Ali. He was famous for the Classic Burmese old songs. Even most famous singer Mar Mar Aye learned from him. Piano Ko Mar Mut was also famous.[22]
  • Movie stars. Shwe Ba and <a title="Maung Maung
    Ta” href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maung_Maung_Ta”>Maung Maung Ta were very popular movie stars in Burma. After retirement <a title="Maung Maung
    Ta” href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maung_Maung_Ta”>Maung Maung Ta got the Ph.D. with the thesis with the Shia Muslims in Burma. (I hereby hope and request to Dr Mg Mg Ta or his friends to kindly contribute his thesis in the Wikipedia and allow me to copy in my web blog.)
  • Lt. Col. Dr. Khalid Maung Maung. Southern Shan State BRC Supervision Committee Chairman Lt. Col. Khalid Maung Maung.
  • Prominent Burmese Muslims in Burma Army. There were few prominent Burmese Muslims in Burma Army earlier. Brig. General Maung Maung Gyi was from Burma Navy and Colonel Tin Soe was with the Revolution Council of General Ne Win. Various forms of Military Governments continue to rule Burma (Myanmar) since that council overthrown the democratically elected U Nu’s Government.
  • Daw Saw Shwe. Famous Myanmar Muslim woman. Chairperson of Burma Muslim Organization.
  • U Aung Thin represented the Myanmar Muslims at the Round Table Committee on whether Burma should be separated from India or not. That was held at London, in 1930.[23]
  • U Ba Oh was a very rich Burmese Muslim philanthropist. He funded BMS Burma Moslem Society’s activities and was voted president for life. He was not only active in social and welfare, but he had also stood bravely in demanding the rights of Myanmar Muslims.[24]
  • Haji Thein ( President-Islamic Religious Affairs Council )(Pulae, Pearl)
  • Dr. Tin Maung (Son of U Kar), he was the Rector of Institute of Computer Science & Technology (ICST).

Notable Burmese Muslims under Burmese Kings

All the list of persons below are taken from the “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111[25]

  • Naymyo Gonnayap Khan Sab Bo @ Abdul Karim Khan. Ambassador to Indochina.
  • Minister Mingyi Maha Min Htin Yar Zar @ U Chone, Akhbad Myin Wun, cavalry Captain, Mayor of Pin Lae town.
  • Maha Min Kyaw Thiha Min Htin @ U Pho Yit, Mayor of Tapae town.
  • Min Hla Min Htin Yarzar @ U Nae Htun,Kala Won.
  • Maha Bawga Dana Thiri Yarzar Mullah Ismail, Custom Chief. Royal Ship Captain, Mayor of Kyauk Yae town. He donated the Mandalay Soorti Mosque.
  • Maha Min Hla Min Htin Yarzar @ U Naw Khan, Kalay Tain Nyin Yargazo Mayor.
  • Maha Min Khaung Kyaw Htin @ U Pyar, Mayor of Sinku.
  • Malar Mon @ U Pwint, Explosive expert. (Yan Chet won)
  • Min Hla Min Htin Thu Rain, Western Jail Superintendent.
  • Min Htin Yarzar, Chief Clerk.
  • Nay Myo Thiha Kyaw Htin @ U Tar, Advocate.
  • Nay Myo Yaza Thinkhayar @ Marmet Ebrahim, Advocate.
  • Nay Myo Yaza Thinkhaya @ Abdul Rahman, Advocate.
  • Nay Myo Min hla Yazar Thu @ U Kyin Oo, Special squad Captain. (Ywe Let Yar Bo)
  • Min Htin Thithi Yarzar @ U Khaung, Special squad Captain.
  • Maha Thu wunna Thaetha @ U Yan Aung. (Rich man)
  • Maha Thiri Thukha Thaetha @ Maung Sein. (Rich man)
  • Mantaka Maha Thala @ U San Pyaw (Richman)
  • Maha Bawga Punnya @ U Yit (Rich-man)
  • Abit Shah Husaini, Chief Islamic Judge (Bodaw).
  • Malauvi Kabul, Chief Islamic Judge (Mindon)
  • Naymyo Gonnayat @ Khalifa U Pho Mya
  • Khalifa U Hwe Lone.
  • Royal ship Captain U Pho Mya.
  • Bo Min Setkyar Amyoke Tat U Hashim.
  • Bo Min Bone Oh Bengla Amyoke Tat, U Yauk.
  • Thwe Thauk Gyi (Major of 275 soldiers, Head of 5 Thwe Thauks who had 55 soldiers each under them) Thwe Thauk Gyi of Cannon brigade U Bo. (I could not mention the few dozens of Thwe Thauk Gyis because of limited space)
  • Setkyar (Amyoke Tat) Cannon brigade Chief Officer, U Pho Kar.
  • Custom Chief, Ar Gar Sherazi (Shia Muslim)
  • Price Controller, U Maw.
  • Merchant U Shwe Thi.
  • Horse Cavalry Chief Captain, Wali Khan.
  • Horse Cavalry Captain U Tu Wa, Wali Khan Horse Cavalry.
  • Thibaw’s personal secretary, U Hashim.
  • Thwe Thauk Gyi (Major) U Danaing (Kindar Kala Pyo Army) Grandfather of Pathi U Ko Ko Lay.
  • There are many Thwe Thauk Gyis, Captains and Palace Ladies closed to the queen.

See also

[edit] References

Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia’s style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (March 2010)
    1. ^ ibid,page9, paraaph 4.
    2. ^ ibid, page10,line 7,8&9.
    3. ^ ibid, page10,line 17,18&19.
    4. ^ ibid page 2, paragraph 3, line 1,2&3.
    5. ^ ibid page 20, paragraph 3.
    6. ^ ibid page 30, whole page.
    7. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, (limited edition for members only) Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.
    8. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 157.
    9. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 166.
    10. ^ Burmese Encyclopedia Vol 11, P 73 printed in 1970
    11. ^ “101 Ismaili Heroes”. Ismailli.net. http://ismaili.net/Source/mumtaz/Heroes1/hero100.html.
    12. ^ This poem in Burmese, “Sayar Maung Thaw Ka” by Kyaw Zwa in Burma Digest published on 23. 06.2007 mentioned this fact.[1]
    13. ^ U Shwe Yoe’s alias U Ba Ga Lay by Tin Soe. Al-Balag Journal, Published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. Nov-Dec 2001. page 80,91&82 1
    14. ^ Ludu Daw Ah Mar, Shwe Yoe, Ba Galay – Artists of the same names in 2 volumes 1969
    15. ^ ibid
    16. ^ ibid
    17. ^ ibid
    18. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.
    19. ^ a b Press Release, Rohingya Patriotic Front 9-2-1966.
    20. ^ “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. page 90-112.
    21. ^ General Ne win’s personal assistant Thetkatho Ne Win’s records.
    22. ^ Mar Mar Aye’s radio interview
    23. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wiesbaden.
    24. ^ ibid
    25. ^ The “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111.

 

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